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Sign up for Shipping Pass so you can shop more, save money and live better. Skip Left Hand Navigation. Camicia Nera or squadristi singular: Its members were distinguished by their black uniforms modelled on those of the Arditi , Italy's elite troops of World War I and their loyalty to Benito Mussolini , the Duce leader of Fascism , to whom they swore an oath.
The founders of the paramilitary groups were nationalist intellectuals, former army officers and young landowners opposing peasants' and country labourers' unions. Their methods became harsher as Mussolini's power grew, and they used violence and intimidation against Mussolini's opponents. The Blackshirts were established as the squadristi in and consisted of many disgruntled former soldiers. It was given the task of leading fights against their bitter enemies — the Socialists.
They may have numbered , by the time of Mussolini's March on Rome from 27 to 29 October Benito Mussolini was the leader, or Commandant-General and First Honorary Corporal, of the blackshirts, but executive functions were carried out by the Chief of Staff, equivalent to an army general.
The terms after the first are not words common to European armies e. Instead, they derive from the structure of the armies of ancient Rome. The MVSN original organization consisted of 15 zones controlling legions one per province of three cohorts each and one Independent Group controlling 10 legions. In it was reorganized into four raggruppamenti , but later in October it was reorganized into 14 zones controlling only legions with two cohorts each, one of men 21 to 36 years old and the other of men up to 55 years old.
Special militias were also organized to provide security police and gendarmerie functions, these included:. The rifle companies had three platoons three squads with one LMG each. Each Legion had a MMG company with four platoons of three weapons each plus two spare ones. The Blackshirts replacements battalions were organized as the Blackshirts Rifle Battalions, but its platoon were overstrength 60 men each and with only 1 x LMG in each platoon.
The CCNN divisions were semi-motorised. In the MVSN was able to muster , first-line combat troops, providing three divisions 1st, 2nd and 4th — all three of which were lost in the North African Campaign and, later in , a fourth division "M" and fifth division Africa were forming. Mussolini also pushed through plans to raise MVSN combat battalions of men each to provide a Gruppo di Assalto to each army division.
Later 41 Mobile groups were raised to become the third regiment in Italian Army divisions as it was determined through operational experience that the Italian army's binary divisions were too small in both manpower and heavy equipment. These mobile groups suffered heavy casualties due to being undermanned, under equipped and under trained.
Fascism , political ideology and mass movement that dominated many parts of central, southern, and eastern Europe between and and that also had adherents in western Europe, the United States, South Africa, Japan, Latin America, and the Middle East. Opposition to Marxism In fascism: Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.
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